Glossary

Assistance with Daily Living Skills | Non-institutional delivery of services designed to assist an individual in maintaining their highest level of functioning in the most integrated and least restrictive setting possible. Services may range from more intensive supports like assistance with Activities of Daily Living (bathing, dressing, eating, toileting, etc.) to less intensive services such as help with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (medication or money management, meal preparation, home safety, etc.). Services may be delivered by both formal and informal providers. Services may be provided in the office, in a community-based setting or in the home.

Care Coordination | Includes coordination with other ancillary, health, and mainstream services that individuals may receive to promote better service utilization, coordination of care, and better outcomes for individuals. Includes but is not limited to coordination of services such as medications, appointments, services plans, and goals, as well as roles of providers and outreach when needed. Coordination is done through individual meetings, care coordination team meetings, and other communication methods, and includes securing appropriate release of information.

Caregiver/Family Support | Services and supports specifically designed to assist family caregivers of children or adults with disabilities. Services may include (but are not limited to): education, training, counseling, in-home supports like respite and friendly visitor, and community-based supports like child care and group respite.

Chronically Homeless | To qualify as 'chronically homeless' an individual must be currently homeless and living in a place not meant for human habitation, a safe haven or an emergency shelter, must have been homeless and residing in such a place continuously for at least one year or on at least 4 separate occasions in the last 3 years, and can be diagnosed with one or more disabling conditions.

Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) | Created under the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, this program provides grant funds to local and state governments to develop viable urban communities by providing decent housing with a suitable living environment and expanding economic opportunities to assist low- and moderate-income residents.

Consolidated Plan (ConPlan) | A document written by a state or local government describing the housing needs of the low- and moderate-income residents, outlining strategies to meet these needs, and listing all resources available to implement the strategies. This document is required in order to receive some formula funded HUD Community Planning and Development funds.

Continuum of Care (CoC) | A collaborative funding and planning approach that helps communities plan for and provide, as necessary, a full range of emergency, transitional, and permanent housing and other service resources to address the various needs of people experiencing homelessness. HUD also refers to the group of service providers involved in the decision-making processes as the 'Continuum of Care.'

Coordinated Entry System | Provisions in the CoC Program interim rule at 24 CFR 578.7(a)(8) require that CoCs establish a Centralized or Coordinated Assessment System. HUD uses the terms coordinated entry and coordinated entry process instead of centralized or coordinated assessment system to help avoid the implication that CoCs must centralize the assessment process, and to emphasize that the process is easy for people to access, that it identifies and assesses their needs, and makes prioritization decisions based upon needs. However, HUD considers these terms to mean the same thing.

Counseling/Therapies | Individualized counseling designed to address a specific crisis, social support, medical or psychiatric need. This service is different from benefits and options counseling. This service category also includes specific therapies to assist obtaining, retaining, or regaining physical and psychological health.

Discharge Planning | Assistance with transition from inpatient, nursing facility, residential treatment, jail, and/or other institutions, including assistance with discharge planning and planning for returning to community life by assisting with moving, timely access and transition to community-based services, medication and benefits, returning to or finding a place to live. Includes collaboration with facility discharge planners and other staff to develop and implement effective discharge or transition plans and other assistance as needed during the transition as well as monitoring and follow-up to determine if the services and resources accessed adequately address the participant's needs.

Equipment, Technology, and Modifications | The purchase or rent of items, devices, or product systems to increase or maintain a person's functional status. This service can include designing, fitting, adapting, and maintaining equipment, as well as training or technical assistance to use equipment.

Extremely Low Income Households (ELI) | Those with incomes below 30 percent of area median income.

Financial Support/Entitlement Assistance/Benefits Counseling | Includes benefits counseling and assistance with applications (e.g., for income, food, and utility assistance), as well as referral for legal advocacy, assistance with appeals, and acquiring necessary documentation.

Health Management, Education and Support | Includes accessing and utilizing medical, dental, substance abuse, and mental health treatments as well as long-term services and supports. Health management may also include: acute illness and chronic disease education, management and support, crisis and recovery planning, harm reduction services, substance abuse counseling, education related to mental illness, medication management, relapse prevention, HIV/AIDS/STD education, advanced directives, end of life planning, and much more.

Home and Community-Based Services | Home and community-based services (HCBS) provide opportunities for Medicaid beneficiaries to receive services in their own home or community rather than institutions or other isolated settings.

HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) | Provides formula grants to States and localities that communities use—often in partnership with local nonprofit groups—to fund a wide range of activities including building, buying, and/or rehabilitating affordable housing for rent or homeownership or providing direct rental assistance to low-income people. HOME is the largest Federal block grant to state and local governments designed exclusively for affordable low-income housing.

Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) | An HMIS is a computerized data collection application designed to capture client-level information over time on the characteristics and service needs of men, women, and children experiencing homelessness, while also protecting client confidentiality. It is designed to aggregate client-level data to generate an unduplicated count of clients served within a community’s system of homeless services. An HMIS may also cover a statewide or regional area and include several Continuums of Care. The HMIS can provide data on client characteristics and service utilization.

Housing Choice Voucher Program | This program is the federal government's major program for assisting very low-income families, the elderly, and people with disabilities to afford decent, safe, and quality housing in the private market. It was previously known as “Section 8.”

Housing First | This is an approach that centers on providing homeless people with housing quickly and then providing services as needed. What differentiates a Housing First approach from other strategies is that there is an immediate and primary focus on helping individuals and families quickly access and sustain permanent housing.

HUD | The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was established in 1965. HUD's mission is to increase homeownership, support community development, and increase access to affordable housing free from discrimination.

Individual Housing Transition Services | Services that support an individual’s ability to prepare for and transition to housing. Examples may include:

  • Conducting a screening and assessment of housing preferences/barriers related to successful tenancy
  • Developing an individualized housing support plan based on assessment
  • Assisting with rent subsidy application/certification and housing application processes
  • Assisting with housing search process
  • Identifying resources to cover start-up expenses, moving costs and other one-time expenses
  • Ensuring housing unit is safe and ready for move in
  • Assisting in arranging for and supporting the details of move-in
  • Developing an individualized housing support crisis plan

Individual Housing & Tenancy Sustaining Services | Services that support the individual in being a successful tenant in his/her housing arrangement and thus able to sustain tenancy. Examples may include:

  • Providing early identification/intervention for behaviors that may jeopardize housing
  • Education/training on the role, rights, and responsibilities of the tenant and landlord
  • Coaching on developing/maintaining relationships with landlords/property managers
  • Assisting in resolving disputes with landlords and/or neighbors
  • Advocacy/linkage with community resources to prevent eviction
  • Assisting with the housing recertification process
  • Coordinating with tenant to review/update/modify housing support and crisis plan
  • Continuing training on being a good tenant and lease compliance

Job Skills Training/Education | This includes assistance to locate and obtain paid employment or self-employment, including opportunities/access to education, GED, occupational skills development, connection to childcare services. Includes support around budgeting and financial education and supported employment.

Low-Income Tax Credit (LIHTC) | A tax incentive intended to increase the availability of low-income housing. The program provides an income tax credit to owners of newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated low-income rental housing projects.

Outreach and In-Reach | Services involve connecting individuals not yet served (outreach) and individuals already being served (in-reach) with mainstream services and housing-related tenancy support services. Efforts typically focus on identifying and engaging with unserved, under-served, and poorly-served individuals. This includes home visits and efforts at re-engagement as needed.

Peer Supports | Individuals with lived experienced trained and certified as Peer Specialists that provide information, peer counseling, mentoring related to health education, housing stability support, etc., and assist individuals to adopt and manage their own recovery plan.

Permanent Supportive Housing | Permanent (i.e., not time-limited or transitional) housing with supportive services. Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) combines lease-based, affordable housing with tenancy supports, and other voluntary services to help individuals with disabilities achieve stable housing and recovery in the community.

Public Housing Agency (PHA) | Any state, county, municipality, or other governmental entity or public body, or agency or instrumentality of these entities that is authorized to engage or assist in the development or operation of low-income housing under the U.S. Housing Act of 1937.

Qualified Allocation Plan (QAP) | A Qualified Allocation Plan is the mechanism by which a state housing finance agency promulgates the criteria by which it will select to whom it will award tax credits. Each state must develop a QAP. The QAP also lists all deadlines, application fees, restrictions, standards, and requirements.

Rapid Re-Housing | Rapid re-housing is the practice of focusing resources on helping families and individuals quickly move out of homelessness and into permanent housing, which is usually housing in the private market. Services to support rapid re-housing include housing search and landlord negotiation, short-term financial and rental assistance, and the delivery of home-based housing stabilization services, as needed.

Section 811 Capital Advances | Since October 1991, HUD has provided capital advances, rather than loans, to finance the development of rental housing for persons with disabilities. The Section 811 Capital Advance Program provides housing for persons with disabilities. This program replaced the Section 202 direct, formula interest rate loan program. In both the Section 202 HUD and Section 811 programs, the development of rental housing with supportive services is subsidized with an interest-free capital advance, and repayment is not required as long as the housing remains available to very low-income persons with disabilities. The capital advances are provided together with tenant rental subsidies in the form of Project Rental Assistance Contracts (PRACS).

Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) | A Federal rental assistance program specifically for persons with disabilities that provides project-based assistance.

Service Assessment | Assessment includes service intake, evaluation of individual needs, gathering information and documents for eligibility determination, arranging for specialized testing or evaluation (e.g. decision-making capacity), providing and completing the necessary assessment documentation, and reassessment (as appropriate).

Service Monitoring | Service monitoring is on-going monitoring and evaluation of services in the service plan. It includes coordination of those services with ancillary and informal services and supports (e.g., medical, mental health, substance use), periodic discussions with the person receiving services to ensure ongoing efficacy of and satisfaction with services (as well as to trigger reassessment when the individual's condition or situation changes), and may include personal advocacy to ensure an individual's rights are upheld with landlords, service providers, etc. Service also includes documenting referrals, follow-up, and progress related to service plan goals.

Service Plan Development | Working with the individual (and their family, caregivers, etc. as appropriate) to establish goals and develop a service plan to help meet those goals based on individualized assessment. Activity includes identification of and referrals to service providers and ancillary services, updating the plan as needed, providing and completing appropriate documentation around service plan development, acquiring required signatures, and reviewing and updating service plan goals.

Services | Includes community-based assistance and support, regardless of funding source, that promotes community integration and fosters community living opportunities for individuals needing long term services and supports, and which assist individuals to live successfully in their chosen housing environment.

Settings Rule | Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS) Settings Final Rule establishes requirements for the qualities of settings that are eligible for reimbursement for the Medicaid home and community-based services (HCBS) provided under sections 1915(c), 1915(i), and 1915(k) of the Medicaid statute. The final rule requires that all home and community-based settings meet certain qualifications. These include:

  • The setting is integrated in and supports full access to the greater community;
  • Is selected by the individual from among setting options;
  • Ensures individual rights of privacy, dignity and respect, and freedom from coercion and restraint;
  • Optimizes autonomy and independence in making life choices; and
  • Facilitates choice regarding services and who provides them.

The final rule also includes additional requirements for provider-owned or controlled home and community-based residential settings. These requirements include:

  • The individual has a lease or other legally enforceable agreement providing similar protections;
  • The individual has privacy in their unit including lockable doors, choice of roommates, and freedom to furnish or decorate the unit;
  • The individual controls his/her own schedule including access to food at any time;
  • The individual can have visitors at any time; and
  • The setting is physically accessible.

Skill Development and Acquisition | Promotion and restoration of daily living skills, such as those that help individuals keep, learn, or improve skills and functioning for daily living. Services may range from how to use public transportation to gaining the necessary skills for a person with intellectual or cognitive limitations to live independently in the community. Services may take place in the office, in a community-based setting, or in the home.

Support Groups | Support groups consist of a group of people with common experiences or concerns who provide each other with encouragement, comfort, and advice. Some also are designed to deliver information and education. Groups may be large or small, in-person, by phone, and on-line. Support groups address many topics such as grief and loss, parenting, health issues, conflict resolution/mediation, and smoking cessation. Also could include community involvement and integration.

Supportive Housing (SH) | Supportive housing is decent, safe, affordable, community-based housing that provides tenants with the rights of tenancy and links to voluntary and flexible supports and services. There are three main types of supportive housing models:

  • Single-site: Apartment buildings exclusively or primarily housing individuals and/or families who need supportive housing.
  • Scattered-site: Rent subsidized apartments leased in the open market.
  • Integrated/Clustered: Apartment buildings with units set aside for people who need supportive housing.

State-level Housing Related Collaborative Activities | Services that support collaborative efforts across public agencies and the private sector that assist a state in identifying and securing housing options for individuals with disabilities, older adults needing LTSS, and those experiencing chronic homelessness.

Tenant-Based Rental Assistance (TBRA) | Housing assistance that is used to subsidize private housing units of the household's choice in the community.

Transportation | Coordination and/or provision of both medical (non-emergency) and non-medical (i.e., for employment) transportation services and options. Service includes escort/attendant-accompanied transport and accompanying individuals on appointments.

USICH | The United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) in an independent federal agency that partners with 19 federal Cabinet Secretaries and agency heads to coordinate the Federal response to homelessness. USICH seeks to create a national partnership at every level of government and with the private sector to reduce and end homelessness in the nation while maximizing the effectiveness of the Federal Government in contributing to the end of homelessness.